The South Korean tech giant reported an operating profit of 14 trillion won ($12bn; £9.3bn) in the three months to June, up 72% on a year earlier.
Sales climbed 18% to 60 trillion won, buoyed by strong sales of smartphones including the new flagship Galaxy S8.
Analysts say the results indicate Samsung has recovered from the disastrous Galaxy Note 7 recall.
That handset was axed after a battery fault led to some devices catching fire.
Also on Friday, Samsung launched a new phone in South Korea using parts from the Note 7 to "minimise the environmental impact" of its high-profile flop.
Some research firms predict that Samsung is set to overtake Intel as the world's biggest chipmaker by sales this year.
It has benefitted from both rising demand and prices for semiconductors, or memory chips, which are used in smartphones and computers.
The Note 7 debacle damaged Samsung's reputation and caused it to lose its position as the world's biggest smartphone maker in the first quarter.
Rivals such as Apple and China's Huawei, Xiaomi and Oppo gained market share following the recall.
Samsung has also seen its image dented by the arrest and ongoing trial of de-facto chief Jay Y. Lee over a political bribery scandal. Mr Lee denies the charges.
Motorola has announced a new affordable smartphone with 5000mAH battery- Moto G8 Power Lite on April 3, 2020, which looks to be a stripped version of the Moto G8 Power launched last month.
Recently, Vivo has confirmed that its upcoming 5G smartphone Vivo S6 will be unveiled on March 31 in China.
Vivo has launched it's latest mid-range offering in the S series in China- Vivo S6 5G on 31 March 2020.
Huawei has introduced its flagship P40 series smartphones- Huawei P40, Huawei P40 Pro, and the Huawei P40 Pro+ on March 26, in an online-only event.
Huawei is all set to announce its new flagship smartphones on March 26. The rumors and leaks on Huawei P40 series phones are coming out daily.
Realme has teased the Narzo series of smartphones yesterday, and today Realme has confirmed the Narzo 10 and Narzo 10A smartphones launch details.
Huawei is all set to launch its new P40 series of smartphones -- the P40 and P40 Pro and a P40 Premium -- on March 26.
Xiaomi's sub-brand- Black Shark has unveiled the Black Shark 3 and Black Shark 3 Pro gaming smartphones in China on Tuesday.
Vivo has announced that the Vivo Nex 3S 5G smartphone will launch on March 10 in China.