An H-IIA rocket blasted off at about 2:30 pm (0530 GMT) from the Tanegashima space centre in southern Japan, according to the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).
The rocket successfully released the "Michibiki" No.3 satellite about 30 minutes after launch.
The launch was initially scheduled last week but was postponed due to a technical glitch.
Satellite geolocation systems, initially designed for the US military, now power countless civilian applications, from car navigation to internet browsing on mobile phones.
Japan relies on the U.S.-operated Global Positioning System (GPS). Saturday's launch was part of a broader plan to build a domestic version with four satellites focusing on the country and wider region.
The first satellite was put into orbit in 2010 and the second was launched in June.
The fourth is to be launched by March 2018 to start up the service.
The Japan-built system will still need to operate in tandem with GPS.
Though GPS is widely used in Japan, having supplementary satellites is important in a country where mountainous terrain and high buildings may interfere with its signals.
Michibiki, meaning "guidance" in Japanese, will cover the Asia-Oceania region and is intended for civilian use.
Japan plans to boost the number of its satellites in orbit to seven by around 2023.
Samsung will unveil the most anticipated 2020 flagship mobiles Galaxy S20 series smartphones at the event on Feb 11, 2020.
HONOR 9X with 6.59-inch FHD+ display, 48MP triple rear cameras, 16MP pop-up camera launched in India on Jan 14, 2020.
Oppo has launched its new F-series smartphone- OPPO F15 in India on 16, Jan 2020.
Samsung is going to unveil three phones in its upcoming flagship Galaxy S20 lineup– the Samsung Galaxy S20, Samsung Galaxy S20+, and Samsung Galaxy S20 Ultra.
Samsung is all set to launch its new flagship smartphones- Galaxy S20 series at its Galaxy Unpacked event next month.
Xiaomi has filed a trademark for a phone named Pocophone F2. This indicates that the successor of Pocophone F1 is coming soon.
Xiaomi's Black Shark 3 will be the first smartphone arrives with the highest amount of memory- 16GB RAM in the market.
OPPO is all set to launch the Oppo F15 smartphone in India on January 16th, 2020.
Samsung has silently launched its new Xcover series of rugged smartphones - Samsung Galaxy Xcover Pro in Finland.
Vivo is hosting a three-day Christmas Carnival sale starting today and it brings discounts and offers on its range of smartphones.